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Summary: Holocene climate is characterized by two initial millennia of fast warming followed by four millennia of higher temperatures and humidity, and a progressively accelerating cooling and drying for the past six millennia. Rutger Sernander proposed that this climatic change was abrupt, even a catastrophe that he identified with the Fimbulwinter of the Sagas.

This transition displaced the climatic equator, ended the African Humid Period and increased El Niño activity. However, it captures the essence of Holocene climate as four periods of roughly 2500 years each. Although this is currently the most popular subdivision, in my opinion, it fails to properly capture the climatic trends of the Holocene.A comparison between temperatures and obliquity over the past 800,000 years shows that while variable, the thermal inertia of the planet delays the temperature response to obliquity changes by an average of 6,500 years (figure 35). Grey curve changes in obliquity of the planetary axis in degrees. This general pattern of Holocene temperatures was already known by the late 1950’s from a variety of proxy records from different disciplines (Lamb, 1977; figure 36 A). Green curve, simulated global temperatures from an ensemble of three models (CCSM3, FAMOUS, and LOVECLIM) from Liu et al., 2014, show the inability of general climate models to replicate the Holocene general temperature downward trend. The mean temperatures of an ensemble of three models (CCSM3, FAMOUS, and LOVECLIM; Liu et al., 2014; figure 38) show a constant increase in temperatures during the entire Holocene, driven by the increase in GHG.The drop of obliquity always terminates interglacials. Greenland ice cores confirmed this pattern, when corrected for uplift (Vinther et al., 2009), and greatly improved the dating of temperature changes (figure 36 B). This disagreement between models and data-derived reconstructions of Holocene climate has been termed by the authors the Holocene temperature conundrum (Liu et al., 2014).Background color represents changes in annual insolation by latitude and time due to changes in the Earth’s axial tilt (obliquity), shown in a colored scale. Obliquity changes contribute to the lack of warming of Antarctica during the Holocene, despite increasing Southern Hemisphere summer insolation. Greenland temperature reconstruction based on an average of uplift corrected δO of seawater and calibrated to borehole temperature records. I have also rescaled the temperature changes to make them congruent with the vast literature and consilience of evidence from different fields that indicates that the Holocene Climatic Optimum was on average between 1 and 2 °C warmer than the Little Ice Age (figure 37 b). The resulting temperature curve is extraordinarily similar to H. The averaging method does not correct for proxy drop out which produces an artificially enhanced terminal spike, while the Monte Carlo smoothing eliminates most variability information. Black curve, global average temperature reconstruction from Marcott et al., 2013, using proxy published dates, and differencing average.This figure essentially shows how global temperature changes respond mainly to persistent changes in insolation caused by changes in obliquity that are symmetrical for both poles. Ultimately obliquity changes will be responsible for the glacial inception that will put an end to the Holocene interglacial in the distant future. Lamb regional reconstruction from the 1970s (figure 36 A), with significant temperature drops at 5.5, 3, and 0.5 kyr BP. Temperature anomaly was rescaled to match biological, glaciological, and marine sedimentary evidence, indicating the Holocene Climate Optimum was about 1.2°C warmer than LIA. Purple curve, Earth’s axis obliquity is shown to display a similar trend to Holocene temperatures. The controversial role of greenhouse gases during the Holocene What role, if any, have greenhouse gases (GHG) played in Holocene climate change?

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